Circassian Association of California
Adyghe Khasa


We Speak Adyghebza!

Lesson (I).

Circassian language has the different idioms: Abdzah, Adamiy, Baslney, Bzhedygu, Egerykoy, Kabarday, Mahosh, Natuhay, Ubyh, Hatikoi, Chemgui, Shapsygu. At present time the most wide-spread at Northern Caucasus are Kabarday, Shapsygu, Bzhedygu and Chemgui idioms. Each idiom has the differences as in some sounds pronunciation, as in some subjects name. This article does not present detailed discovery of Circassian idioms differences. Should be taken into account that in base of this manual is prescribed Bzhedygu idiom. We just explain some particularities of pronunciation in one or another events. However we hope that this subject will revealed detail on our site pages soon.


Here and hereinafter we classify all the words of Circassian language, as nouns, adjectives, number, pronouns, verbs, adverbs, servicing words. This classification should be confirmed as conditional, since in Circassian language the same word can be used as noun, adjective and verb as well.


Are You Circassian? Уадыга?
Yes I am Circassian. Ары, сэ сыадыг!
That guy was Circassian. А кIалэ адыгагъ.
In the last sentence the word "адыг" has the past tense verb suffix -агъ, and is being changed as the verb.

Lesson (II) Circassian Alphabet - how do we read this?!

In Circassian language there are 7 vowels and 57 phonemes:
The following sounds have the corresponding in English.

А а = A (in the word 'after')
Б б = b (in the word 'bear')
В в = v ('voice')
Г г = g ('gain')
Д д = d ('dear')
Дж дж = j ('job')
Е е = ye ('yellow')
З = z ('zero')
И = ee ('bee')
Й = y (‘today’)
К = c ('cat')
Л = l ('leg')
М = m ('man')
Н = n ('new')
О = o ('box')
П = p ('pen')
С = s ('seven')
Т = t ('ten')
У = oo ('cool')
Ф = f ('fast')
Х = h ('help')
Ч = ch ('cheese')
Ш = sh ('shop')
Э = a ('glass')
Ю = you ('you')
Я = you ('young')

Ь is pronounced as { j } in new {nju:}. It makes the consonant milder;
Ъ is pronounced similarly, but firmer than Ь. It separates sounds one from the other.


The Vowel sounds - а, э, ы, e, и, й, о, у, .
The Vowel ы has not the analogy in English. It is close to 'ee' ('beep') but more locked and has not the articulations in the manner of sprained lips.
From these vowels are formed an abruptives: Iа, Iэ, Iы, Iо, Iу.
At abruptive pronunciation speech organs execute the same function as at corresponding vowel pronunciation, but herewith occurs lump forced surge of air (as at moan), with no vocal cordses vibration. The difference between vowel and it's abruptive should be confirmed since it influences upon the sense.
Example: Iанэхэ - Tables, and анэхэ - their eyes, IукIын - meet and укIын to kill. For forming abruptive pronouncing - more sharp, staccato sound, at pronouncing which in larynxes between vocal cordses is formed the joining, which at the end of sound noisily tears.


Р р
Is a bit similar to the English 'r' ('ring') but the tongue should touch the salient under the teethes and make a vibration. Is similar to Russian "р" or Arabian "r"

Гу гу
Close to г with labialization i.e. is accompanied with lips truncation , as under 'oo' (look) in English. Is Read closely to 'go..' in English but sounds are pronounced simultaneously and 'у' does not serve here for forming the slab. For example: in the words 'гъогу' and 'джэгу' - one slab (heard "гъог", "джэг", but with lips truncation at the end of the word).
Example: гу - heart; гуащэ - princess / mother-in-law; джэгу - wedding.

Гъ гъ
Close to г but more long, deep and pronounced with the vibration of the larynx lug. A bit similar to the French and to the German 'r'.
Example: гъогу - road; тыгъэ - sun; гъэмафэ - summer; лагъэ - high; гъэжъуагъэ - boiled.

Гъу гъу
Close to гъ but labializated i.e. is accompanied with additional lips truncation, as under 'oo' ('look'). The lips are extended and rounded.
Example: ныбджэгъу - friend; лъэгъун - see.

Дз дз
Close to дз, but the sounds meets in united sound
Example: дзэ - army, дзын - throw.

Close to 'sh' ('shop') but pronounced with voice.
Example: жэ - mouth, жакIэ - beard зубы

Жъ жъ
Average between 'з' and 'ж. The narrow slot is formed between language and the tubercle on upper teeths. Air passing through this slot produces something average between whistle and hum.
Example: жъы - old; шкIэхъужъ - goby.

Жъу жъу
Close to жъ but with labialization i.e. is accompanied with lips truncation . The Air gets through slot of round lips.
Example: Iужъу - thick;, гъэжъуагъэ - boiled.

Жь жь
Is Pronounced as ж, but more long and softly.
Example: фыжьы - white, плъыжьы - red, ныбжьыкIэ - young,

Ку ку
Labialized к. Close to combination 'coo..' ('cool'), but is pronounced together.
Example: ку - cart; кIакор - jacket; куу - deep.

Къ къ
Close to к, but is pronounced deeply in larynxes, "by the larynx top". The joining occurs at pronunciation and joining in larynxes between vocal cordses.
Example: къэшIэн - guess; къины - difficult.

Къу къу
The labialized къ.
Example: цуакъо - footwear;, къуадж - aul, village.

Hard laryngeal sound. Close to к but accompanied with additional vocal cordses articulation, which is at the beginning of sound closed, and at the end are opened, publishing noise. Average between 'k' ('key') and 'ch' ('child') but more deep and forced.
Example: кIалэ-boy; нэкIы - empty; укIын - kill; IукIэн - meet; ныбжьыкIэ - young.

КIу кIу (КIo кIo)
Labializated кI
Example: кIон - go;

Л л
More soft than English l.
Example: лы - meat, лагъэ - plate.

Лъ лъ
Long, deaf, with no voice. A bit close to Л. The air passes through lateral slots between tongue and cheek inner face forming the intensive sound reminiscent hissing. Average between l('long') and sh ('shop').
Example: лъакъо - leg, шIу лъэгъун - love, лъапIэ - expensive, лъэгъун - see, плъыжьы - red, лъагъэ - high

Lateral, noisy, without aspiration. Close to лъ + vocal cordses additional articulation, which at the end of the sound are opened with noise.
Example: лIы - husband, плIы - four

Close to п + vocal cordses additional articulation forming joining, which at the end of the sound is opened with noise. The Lips under its pronunciation close tightly and tear the air, pronunciation its is accompanied the aspiration.
Example: лъапIэ - expensive; чIыпIэ - place; еджапIэ - school.

ПIу пIу
It Is Pronounced as пI but with presence an labialization ии.
Example: пIуакIэ - fluid.

Close to т + vocal cordses additional articulation forming joining, which at the end of the sound is opened with noise.
Example: шхъуантIэ - blue; тIысын - to sit.

ТIу тIу
Close to тI but with labialization.
Example: тIу- two; тIупщын - let go.

Хъ хъ
Has certain resemblance with English 'h' (heart), but more locked. The air blast is directed little skyward, and makes the lurinx lug to vibrate. Or as гъ but deaf, without voice.
Example: пхъашэ - hard; техъагъу - shivering.

Хъу хъу
Labialized хъ
Example: шыпхъу-sister; хъун - become; шхъуантIэ - blue,

Хь хь
Close to English 'h' (heart), but pronounced softly, with lips articulation, which corresponds to pronunciation vowel and in English.
Example: тхьакIум - ear; кушъхьэ - mountain; сыхьат - hour.

Close to combination 'ts' ('bats'), but should be pronounced together.
Example: лыпцэ - muscle, цэ-teeth

Цу цу
Labialized ц. Close to English 'ts' ('tso').
Example: цуабзэ - plowshare; цуакъо - footwear.

Close to ц + vocal cordses additional articulation, which herewith do not publish any sound and occurs the unswitching of speech organs with noise at the end of the sound.
Example: цIыфы -person; пцIы усын - defraud.

Чъ чъ
Close to ч. At breaking point of close organs larynxes is got sharp, staccato snapping sound.
Example: чъыгы - tree; чъэн - run.

Close to ч + additional joining of vocal cordses, which are opened at the end of sound, publishing typical noise.
Example: чIыгу - land; упчIэн - ask.

Шъ шъ
Close to жъ but with no voice and more tense exhalation with aspiration.
Reminds 'sh' ('shop'). The Lips mildly ajar, tip of language mildly elated to the tubercle above the teeths. Air passes between tip of language and larynxes upper wall.
Example: шъхьэ - head; пшъашъэ - girl.

Шъу шъу
Labialized шъ.
Example: шъузы - wife; уцышъо~green.

Close to ш + the additional joining of vocal cordses, which at the end of sound are opened adding special tone.
Example: къэшIэн - guess; шIын - do, build; пшIы - ten.

ШIу шIу
Labialized шI. At sound termination lip accepting position as during prononcing 'oo' ('look'), form the slots betwen the lips air passes creating the additional noise reminiscent deaf whistle.
Example: шIу лъэгъун - like; IэшIу - sweet, tasty; шIои - dirty.

Laryngeal abruptive. The unswitching of close vocal cordses is formed with voice.
Example: Iэ -hand; иIэн - have; IэшIу - sweet, tasty.

Labialized I
Example: Iон - say; IукIэн - meet; Iужъу - thick.
Before to start reading the sections make sure that you correcttly understand this chapter and may correctly read the Circassian sounds.

Lesson (III). Nouns

Nouns in Circassian are different by their relation to the human:
  1. Relating to the human (the people, surnames, name, professions, nationalities) are answering to the question 'хэт?' ("who?").
  2. Not Relating to human (animals, fish, plants, inanimate subjects) are answering to question "сыд?" ("what?").
Nouns in Circassian language are different with their quantity:
  1. The Single form.
  2. The Plural form. Noune gets the suffix '~хэ' in plural form.
Example: кIалэ - boy, кIалэхэ - boys; бзылъфыгъ - woman, бзылъфыгъхэ - women ; нэ - eye, нэхэ - eyes; etc.
Noun is being changed on four cases, there it receives the corresponding suffix:

  1. Nominitive Case. Has the suffix - р: кIалэр - boy; кIалэхэр - boys, бзылъфыгъэр - woman. Under intransitive verbs expresses the subject, implementing main action. Example: кIалэр еджапIэм кIуагъэ - the boy goes to the school. Under connecting verbs expresses the object to which the main action is directed: бзылъфыгъэм джанэр егъыкIэ - woman a shirt wipes. (the woman is washing the shirt)
  2. Ergative Case. Has the suffix -m: кIалэм - boy, кIалэхэм - boys, пшъэшъэхэм - girls, and etc.
    It is Used:
    - for connecting verbs, as feature of subject, realising main action: бзылъфыгъэм джанэр егъыкIэ - woman wipes a shirt.
    - Under intransitive verbs, as object of the main action: кIалэр тхъылъэм еджэ - boy reads a book.

    As circumstance of action i.e. feature of place, time of action and etc:
    ЛыIр унэм ихьыгъ - man entered the house.
    Чэщэм къещхыгъ - At night it was raining.
    Тыгъуасэ чылэм сэщыIагъ - Yesterday I was in the village.
  3. Instrumental Case. Has the suffix -мкIэ or -кIэ:
    къэлэмкIэ - pencil, ощэмкIэ - axe, лъакъомкIэ - leg and etc.
    The Instrument of action:
    - ЫцIэр къэлэмкIэ къэтхъыгъ - his name is written in pencil.
    - Мы гъогумкIэ тэблэкIыщтэп - We can not pass this way.
    The Direction of action:
    ХымкIэ жьыбгъэр къэкIыщтыгъ - the wind blows from sea.
  4. Invertive. Has the suffix - эу:
    кIалэу - boy, кIалэхэу - boys.
    The Reception of another quality by the subject:
    Нахь баеу хъугъэ - he became richer.
    People belonging to some professions:
    кIэлэегъаджэу Iоф щыщIэ - He works as a teacher.
The nouns in Circassian are different by their accessory sign:
There are natural attribute and property attribute.

Natural attribute:
Part of body, such words as 'son', 'daughter', 'brother', 'sister' . All other words are belonging to the property attribute.

The Natural attribute is expressed with prefix:

    Single form:
  1. For the 1-st person, сы~or с- (my): гу- heart, сыгу - my heart; сшыпхъу - my sister.
  2. For the 2-nd person, п~ or у- (your): плъакъо - your leg; угу - your heart; пшыпхъу - your sister.
  3. For the 3-rd person, ы-: ылъакъо - his (her)leg; ышыпхъу - his (her) sister.
    Plural form:
  1. For the 1-st person prefix тэ- or т- : тIэхэр - our hands; тлъакъохэр - our legs;
  2. For the 2-nd person prefix шъуы- or шъу- : шъулъакъохэр - your legs; шъушыпхъу - your sister.
  3. For the 3-rd prefix a- : алъакъо - their legs; агу - their heart.

The Property attribute is Expressed the prefix:

    Single form:
  1. For the 1-st person prefix си-: тхъылъ - book, ситхъылъ - my book;
  2. For the 2-nd person prefix уи-: уитхъылъ - your book;
  3. For the 3-rd person prefix и-: итхъылъ - his book; илI - her husband; ишъузы - his wife.
    Plural form:
  1. For the 1-st person prefix ти-: титхъылъ - our book; тинысэ - our daughter-in-law;
  2. For the 2-nd person prefix шъуи -: шъуитхъылъ - your book; шъуиунэ - your house.
  3. For the 3-rd person prefix я-: янысэ - their daughter-in-law; янэ - their mother, yat - their father.

Lesson (IV). Verbs

The Verb in Circassian is most complex and mutated part of speech. Usually it is posited at the end of sentence. The Verbs are different in tense, person, number and etc.
Below considered the main categories and rules of using the verbs in Circassian.


The Infinitive in Circassian has the ending - н. For example: кIон - go. (here root кIо). The Suffix -н here- completion of infinitive.

Ауеджэ тэкIōн щыт – We must do there (There we-go must).
Сэ осIон сыфай - I want to tell you (I you-tell I-want).
Лъэпкъэу узыхэсым ыбзэ пшIэн фае – You have to know the language of the people, among which you live (Folk you-among-live its-language you-know must).

Root Change
The Analogy to English prepositions in, on, under, around, for and etc expressing location of one subject to other in Circassian often can be denominated by changing the root of verb.

Example: stands;
щыт - stands (as body position );
ут - stands (behind);
чIэт - stands (under) and etc.

The most frequently used verbs root changing are at the table below:




condition / body position
















Within some area








ыур стол чIэгъым чIэс – The cat sits under the table (Cat table under under + sits).
Машинэр ощхым хэт – The car stands in the rain (Car rain among + stands ).
Машинэр щагум дэт – The car stands in the yard (Car yard within + stands).

Connecting and intransitive verbs
The Connecting verbs characterising action of the main subject in offer, require use of this subject in Ergative Case.
Example: Iон – to tell. From this is made the form ыIуагъ - he (she) said. Prefix ы~of the 3-rd person single count , ~гъ - Past Time Suffix).
Пшъашъэм ыIуагъ – The girl said.
As we see, subject ‘пшъэшъэ’ (the girl) here inheres in Ergative Case.
At the same time :
Пшъашъэр къэкIуагъ – The girl has come.
The Form къэкIуагъ is formed from intransitive verb (кIон - go), and subject inheres in Nominitive Case.

Dynamic and steady-state verbs
The Dynamic verbs express the action, motion, (кIон – to go, Iон – to tell, чъэн – to run).
Steady-state verbs express the condition (щытын - stand, щысын - sit, щыIэн - be, inhere).

Discrete prefix
For dynamic verbs: къэ~, and for steady-state verbs : къы~.
Discrete prefix means that process is terminated to some moment of time (or is made one-shot).

кIуагъэ - went.
къэкIуагъ - came.
кIыщт – I will make
къэк1ыщт – I will be making (for continuous tense)

Personality prefix
It is posited before or after the Discrete prefix . Characterisation change the verb in persons.
In the single form for the 1-st person: the prefix сэ~(for dynamic verbs), сы~(for steady-state verbs ).
For example: : сэкIо – I go; сыщыс – I sit; къэсхьыгъ - I bring.
In the last example a Personality prefix stands after Discrete prefix.

For 2-nd person, single form: у~, п~.
For example: укIо – you go; ущыс – you sit; къэпхьыгъ - you bring, къэпIуагъ - you has said.
For the 3-rd person, single form, present tense: ма~ (dynamic) or мэ~ (steady-state verbs ).
For example: макIо - goes; кIуагъэ - went, мэщыс - sits; мэхьы - brings.

For the 3-rd person, single form, past or future tense Personality prefix is absent:
For example: кIуагъэ - went; ы1уагъэ - said; etc.
1st person, plural form: тэ -.
Example: тэкIо - we go; тыщыс - we sit.
2-nd person , plural form: шъо~or шъу -.
Example: шъукIо – You go; шъощыс – You sit, шъотхэ – You write.
3-rd person, plural form, present tense, connecting verbs: а –
Example: аIу – they say; ашхэ - they eat
3-rd person, plural form, present tense, intransitive verbs: suffix -эх (refer to Number Suffix ).
Example: щысыгъэх - they sit; къэкIуагъэх - they come.

Impetus Prefix гъэ-
It is posited after personality prefix . Means the action by which objects make subject to proceed some other action. The Verb with prefix гъэ- always is connecting:
НыоцIыкIум гъэшхагъ пщащэцIыкIур. - The Grandmother has fed [made to eat] the girl
Янэм кIалэр къогъум къуигъэуцуагъ. - Mother made the boy to stand at the corner
Ятэм кIалэр тучанэм егъэкIуагъ - Father sent [made to go] the boy to the shop

Negative Prefix (мы~)
It is posited most often before root of verb, after all other prefixes.
Ащтэу умышI! - Do not do this;
Зи ащ емыIу - Do not say him anything (Nothing him don’t-say);
Щыда умыкIо? - Why do not you go?
УмыгуаI - Do not hurry!
Can not be used simultaneously both Negative Prefix (мы~) and Negative Suffix (-п).

The Negative Suffix (~п).
The Negation Suffix ~п usually follows all other suffixes:
СэкIощтэп - I will not go;
Ахэмэ къэкIуагъэхэп - They did not come.
Непэ aр къaкIощтэп - Today hе (she) will not come.

Tense Suffixes
Future and past tense in Circassian formed at suffixes ~щт (future tense) and ~гъ (past tense):
Cэ сыIуагъ - I said.
Cэ сыIощт – I’ll say.
O укъэкIуагъ - You have come.
O укIощт - You will go.

Number Suffix
Complies with Number Suffix for nouns. Follows the Tense Suffix, precedes the Negative Suffix
къэкIуагъ – he (she) has come.
къэкIуагъэх - they have come.
Is used for intransitive verbs only, otherwise Number Suffix is absent
цIыфхэр аIу - people say
тэ тэкIо - we go.

Imperative mood
Complies with root base:
КIо! - Go!
Щыс! - Sit!
Къэтэдж! - Stand up!
Къэущэжь! – Wake up!

When addressing to several people, imperative mood gains the prefix шъо~ (шъу~):
ШъукIо! - Go!
Шъощыс! - Sit!
Шъукъэтэдж! - Wake up!
Шъукъэущэжь! Awake!

Lesson (V). Adverbs

The Adverbs can be formed from different speech elements by gaining suffix ~эу:

From verbs:
ГумэкIын - beware
МыгумэкIыхэу - unflappable
Джэгун - Play
Джэгунэу - playing
Щысын- sits
Щысэу - sitting

From adjectives:
тэрэз - correct
Тэрэзэу тхы! - write correctly
рэхьат - calm
рэхьатэу - calmly
псынкIэ - quick
псынкIэу - quickly

From other speech elements :
ежь - itself
Ежь-ежьэрэу иIофыр къэгъэухыгъ – He (she) has finished his (her) work by himself (herself).

The following adverbs are not formed from another words:

Place adverbs:
Such as:
мыдэ, mode, моджэ, мыдыджэ (here, here);
одэ, одыджэ, ауеджэ - (there, there) different with comparative vicinity degree:
Одэ къэкIорэр тигъунэгъу - Here goes our neighbour

Tense Adverbs
непэ - today
тыгъубсэ - yesterday
неущы - tomorrow
едэдэм - presently
ыужым - after
етIубнэ – afterwards
жъэу – early

Непэ ap къэкIотэп - Today he will not come.
Тыгъуасэ тызытегущыIагъэм угу къэкIыжьа? – Do You remember, what we talked about yesterday?
Неущы тэкIощт ауеджэ - Tomorrow we will go there.
Пчэджэм жъэу сэкъэтэджагъ – I got up early in the morning

Number Adverbs:
мбкIэу - few,
бэ - much, a lot
бэр’э - often/long,
бэщагъ’эу - long ago

МакIэу Iо, бэу шIэ – Talk less, do a more.
Ащ бэрэ лъэхъугъ, ау къыгъотыжьыгъэп – I had been looking for him for a long time, but I did not find him.
Нахь бэрэ уIущхыпцыкIынэу сэфай - I want you to smile more often.
Бэшlагъэу оу слъэгъугъэп - I have not seen you for a long time.

Lesson (VI). Pronouns

The Pronouns in Circassian can be personal, possessive, qualifying and interrogative.

Personal pronouns
I - сэ
you - Уэ
it, it - Ар
we - тэ
you - шъо
they - ахэр

The Personal pronouns are classified as: Nominitive, Ergative, Instrumental and Invertive
сэ - I
сэркIэ - me, for me, by me
сэрэу - for me, by me
o - you
орыкIэ – for you, by you
орэу - for you, by you
ap – he (she)
аркIэ, ащкIэ - for him (her), by him (her)
арэу - for him (her), by him (her)
тэ - we
тэркIэ – us,
тэрэу - us
шъо шъощ – You (plural form)
шъоркIэ you, for you, by you
шъорэу- for you, by you
ахэр ахэмэ - they
ахэмкIэ – by them
ахэу - by them

Сэ o къыосIуагъ - I said to you.
Сэ ap къэсэлъэIугъ - I asked him (her).
O уятэ къыоIуагъа? – Did you say to your father? [You your-father once-you- say-did]
Ащ еупкI – Ask him.
Ащ ыIорэр сэркIэ тIуейзы – All he says, is not important for me.
Ахэр бо Iэшъэу аIу – People say they are very tasty.

Possessive pronouns

Significies the attribute of subject
сэсый - mine
оуий - yours
ащий – his, hers
тэтый - ours
шъошъуий - yours
яий - theirs

Varied on the same principle, as noun, verbs, adjectives and etc:
Мы ощыр сэсый - this axe is mine.
Мы унэр тэтый - this house is ours.
Мы къамыр оуий - this dagger is Yours.
Мы лагъэхэр шъошъуиех - these plates are Yours

The Indefinite pronoun.
In Circassian whole one - зыгорэ. Serves for indication of all notions corresponding to English words "someone", "something", "someone", "something", "sometime", "somewhere", and etc.

Changes either as noun – in number and in cases:

Single form

Plural form:













Зыгорэ къэшъотх – Write something.
Зыгорэ къэкIуагъ – Someone has come.
Зыгорэм уеупкIын фае – You need to ask somebody. [Somebody – you-him-ask need]
Зыгорэм сэкъэкIощт - I will come someday.
НекIоба, зыгорэм тыкIощт – Come on, we’ll go somewhere [Let’s-go, somewhere we-go-will].
Непэ ap тадэжи къэкIот. - Today he (she) will come to us. [Today he we-to once-go-will]

Generalization pronouns
хэтри хэти - each (about human)
сыдри сыди (Shapsygu. Bzhadygu: щыдри щыди) each (not about human)
зэкIэ - all
ежь - itself
Х’этри инас’ып ежеж’эу х’ехы - Each one chooses his fate by himself.
Сыдри цIыфри дэгъурэ дэирэ епIолъэн плъэкIыт - About each person it’s possible to say as bad as good.

Lesson (VII). Adjectives

Adjectives are different in their quantity : either as noun, in plural form adjectives gain suffix ~хэ.
дахэ – beautiful
дахэхэ - beautiful (in plural form)
дэгъу - good
дэгъухэ - good (in plural form)
дэи - bad
дэихэ - bad (in plural form)
Adjectives are different as qualitative and relative.

The Qualitative adjectives are those which can have comparative and superlative degrees. The Qualitative adjectives are always posited after the defined word:
КIалэ дэгъу - good boy [boy good]
Пшъашъэ дэх - beautiful girl [girl beautiful]
ЦIыф Iуш - wise man [person wise]

The Relative adjectives are those which can not have the comparative degrees. They are posited before the defined word:

ГъукIэ гъогур - railway [iron road]
Пхъэ Iанэ - wooden table

In both events when we change the form and number of structure "none + quality adjective" or "relative adjectives + none" this leads to changing of the suffix of the last word in structure:

Пшъэшъэ дах - Beautiful girl
Пшъэшъэ дахэхэр - beautiful girls
ЦIыф Iуш - wise person.
ЦIыф Iушхэр - wise people.
ГъукIэ гъогур - railway
ГъукIэ гъогухэр - railways

Qualitative adjectives can have comparative and superlative degrees:

The Comparative degree is formed by auxiliary word нахь / анбхь (more).
Ар ощ нахь лъагэ – he is higher than you
Нахь ины хъугъэ – He became bigger [More big became]
Нахь лIэблан охъун фай - You must be braver [more brave you-become must]

For superlative degrees the structure зэкIэмэ анахь (more then all...) is used:

Ар зэкIэмэ анахь дахэ – She is the most beautiful [She than-all more beautiful]
Ар зэкIэмэ анахь лъагэ - It is the highest [It than-all more high]
ЗэкIэми анахь дэгъу шхынкIэ ыгъэшхагъ – She feeds him with the tastiest meal [then-all more good meal-with she-him-feeded]
Ар заужмэ анахь лъэщэ – He is the strongest [He than-all more strong]

Lesson (VIII). Numbers

Circassian Language Numberings are formed from the names of the numbers:







































one hundred




From these are formed:
11 пшIыкIузы eleven
12 пшIыкIутIу twelve
13 пшIыкIущы thirteen
14 пшIыкIуплIы fourteen
15 пшIыкIутфы fifteen
16 пшIыкIухы sixteen
17 пшIыкIублы seventeen
18 пшIыкIуи eighteen
19 пшIыкIубгъу nineteen
21 тIоIкырэ зырэ twenty-one
22 тIоIкырэ тIурэ twenty two
23 тIоIкырэ щырэ twenty three
24 тIоIкырэ плIырэ twenty four …
31 щэкIырэ зырэ thirty one
32 щэкIырэ тIурэ thirty two
33 щэкIырэ щырэ thirty three
34 щэкIырэ плIырэ thirty four …
40 тIокIитIу fourty
41 тIокIитIурэ зырэ fourty one
42 тIокIитIурэ тIурэ fourty two
43 тIокIитIурэ щырэ fourty three
44 тIокIитIурэ плIырэ fourty four....
50 шъэнэкъо fifty [hundred- half]
51 шъэнкъэрэ зырэ fifty one
52 шъэнкъэрэ тIурэ fifty two
60 токIищ sixty [three twenties]
61 тIокIищырэ зырэ sixty one
62 тIокIищырэ тIурэ sixty two
70 тIокIищырэ пшIырэ seventy [sixty ten]
71 тIокIищырэ пшIыкIузырэ seventy one [sixty eleven]
72 тIокIищырэ пшIыкIутIурэ
80 токIиплI eighty [four twenties]
81 токIиплIырэ зырэ eighty one
82 токIиплIырэ тIурэ eighty two
90 токIиплIырэ пшIырэ ninety [eighty ten]
91 токIиплIырэ пшIыкIузырэ ninety one [eighty eleven]
92 токIиплIырэ пшIыкIутIурэ ninety two [eighty twelve]
101 шъэрэ зырэ one hundred one
102 шъэрэ тIурэ one hundred two


200 шъитIу two hundred [two hundreds]
201 шъитIурэ зырэ two hundred one
202 шъитIурэ тIурэ two hundred two and etc.
300 шъищ three hundred [three hundreds] and etc.
400 шъиплI four hundred [four hundreds] and etc.
500 шъитф five hundred [five сотен] and etc.
2000 минитIу two thousand
3000 минищ three thousand and etc.

At indication of number all the numbers except зы (one) are posited after the defined noun:

Зы кIалэ - One boy
КIалитIу - two boys
Зы мафэ - one day
МафитIу - two days
Мафищы (мафищ) - three days

Ordinal Numbers:

Exept апэрэ (first) are formed by prefix я- and suffix – нэрэ
Апэрэ мафэ - First day
ЯтIонэрэ мафэ - second day
ЯтIонэрэ цуакъо - second shoe
Яхэнэрэ классым щэгъэжьагъэу тутын сешъо~I have been smoking since the sixth class

Discrete numbers:

Are formed by changing the last vowel ~ы of number to ~э:
О плIэ кIыосIуагъах - I told you four times already. [You for-times once-you-I-told-already]
Number can also define measure of a share:
Numbers "one" and "two" are formed by words псау (whole, whole), ренэ (whole, whole about length of time), ныкъо (the half).
Тхьаумафэ псаум ащ Iоф ышIагъэп – He did not work the whole week.
Чэщ ренэм тигъэчIыерэп - He did not give us to sleep whole night.

For all other events, by suffix - нэ:
щы – three
щанэ - one third;
плIы - four,
плIанэ - quarter
Хатэм изыщанэ помидор хэдгъэтIыцсхагъ - third part of vegetable garden we used for the tomatoes.
Ахщэ къыратыгъэм ыпIланэ чыфэ ритыгъ – The quarter of the money he received, he lend. [Money once-him-give-was it-quarter in-debt him-gave]

Lesson (IX). Servicing words

These are the words:
ыпэ – before first
дэжь (ди) - to, beside
чIэгъ - under
кIыб –behind for

These words execute the function corresponding to prepositions of English, but are usually posited after defined object.

Ыпэ узытеплъэрэм машинэ дэгъу - At first you thought the car was good.
Ар ыпэ къэчIэжьыгъэп - I did not remember him at first.
Заирэ дэжь къэкIуагъ – he came to Zaira.
Чэтыур стол чIэгъым чIэс – The cat sits under the table.

If the object is denominated the personal pronoun, these words can unite with it and form the independent structure:

Садэжь - To me, beside me.
Тадэжь - To us,beside us

Садэжь укъакIощта непэ? – Will You come to me today? [Me-to you-come-will today ]
Тадэжь къакIоба! – Come to us!

ыкIы, ыджы – and, else
бу, шъхьбем - but
e - or.

Щыд ыджы къыпIотэщт? - What else will You say?
Ащ бэрэ лъэхъугъ, ау къыгъотыжьыгъэп – I was looking for him for a long time, but I did not find.
E улIэн, e улIын – Die or be the man! (Circassian proverb).

The Particles affirmative and negative:
ары – yes
хьау – no

ЗэхэушыкIа? – Do You understand?
Ары. ЗэхэсэшыкIы. - Yes. I understand.
Хьау. ЗэхэсэшыкIэп. - - No. I don’t understand.

Lesson (X). Circassian sentence structure

In Circassian sentence the free order of words is allowed. However all preferred that predicate will be positioned at the end of sentence.

Пчэджэм жъэу сыхьатэблым сэкъэтэджагъ. - I got up at seven o’clock in the early morning.
Сэ тутыныр сешъэнэу чIэсыдзыжьыгъ - I gave up smoking. [I tobacco I-drinking away-I-threw]

Interrogative sentence
The Interrogative sentence in principle saves the sequence of words narrative. The word in sentence to which is posited the question, gains the suffix ~а, or ~ра (Nominitive Case), ~ми (Ergative Case).
Щайныкэр къэжъагъ. The teapot has simmered.
Щайныкэр къэжъагъа? Has the teapot simmered? [Teapot simmered+ ~а]
Дэгу - Deaf
Дэгуха мы унэр зиехэр? Are they deaf, this house masters?

If question is posited to word having Negative Suffix ~п, it is converted to suffix ~ба.

Щайныкэр къэжъагъэба? Has not the teapot simmered? [Teapot simmered]
пшIэрэба? – Don’t You know?
Къыоэджэ, зэхэпхырэба? – They call You, don’t you hear [that]?
If question is posited by auxiliary interrogative words, хэт (who), щыд (what), тыдэ (where), тары (which) these word are positioned in the sentence in that place, where the word is supposed to be positioned, being answer to supplied question:
Хэт къэк1уагъ? Who came?
Щыд ы1уагъ? What did he say?
Непэ тыдэ ущы1эщт? Where you will be today?


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